Overview: Dengue virus antibodies, IgG and IgM, serum (2023)

Useful for

Suggest clinical conditions or settings in which the test might be useful.

Assist in the diagnosis of dengue virus infection


Detection of antibodies to the dengue virus suggests recent exposure to and/or infection with the dengue virus.

This test is to be used for diagnostic purposes only.

Profile Information

A profile is a group of lab tests ordered and run together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test taken, including the test fee, when a profile is requested, and includes individual report names and availability.

test id report name available separately always done
DENG Dengue virus Ab, IgG, S No Sim
DENM Dengue virus Ab, IgM, S No Sim
ADNBI Dengue AB Interpretation No Sim

test algorithm

Outlines situations where tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflexes and additional checks.

For more information, seeLaboratory tests for mosquito-borne diseases.

Special Instructions

Library of PDF files that include pertinent information and test-related forms

  • Laboratory tests for mosquito-borne diseases

method name

A brief description of the method used to perform the test.

Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

New York State available

Indicates New York State approval status and whether the test can be ordered for New York State customers.


report name

Shows a shorter or abbreviated version of the published name for a test

Dengue Virus Ab, IgG and IgM, S


List additional common names for a test to help with research


Break the bone fever


(Video) Antibody Testing: IgG and IgM explained

mosquito-borne infection


test algorithm

Outlines situations where tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflexes and additional checks.

For more information, seeLaboratory tests for mosquito-borne diseases.


sample required

Defines the optimal sample needed to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete the test

Container/collection tube:

Privileged:come and ask

Acceptable:Red shirt

Transport container/tube:plastic bottle

Sample volume:0,5 ml

Collection instructions:Centrifuge and aliquot the serum into a plastic vial.

Special Instructions

Library of PDF files that include pertinent information and test-related forms

  • Laboratory tests for mosquito-borne diseases


If you are not applying electronically, please complete, print and submitRequest for serology test for infectious diseases(T916) with the sample.

Minimum sample volume

Defines the amount of sample required to provide a clinically relevant result, as determined by the testing laboratory.

0,4 ml

reject due to

Identifies sample types and conditions that may cause the sample to be rejected.

gross hemolysis Decline
macroscopic lipemia Decline
severe jaundice Decline
Heat inactivated sample Decline

Information about sample stability

Provides a description of temperatures required to transport a sample to the performing laboratory, also includes alternative acceptable temperatures.

sample type At temperature Tempo Special Container
Serum Chilled (preferred) 14 dias
frozen 14 dias
(Video) Dengue test | NS1 antigen test for Dengue | Dengue IgM & IgG antibody test | How Dengue test works

Useful for

Suggest clinical conditions or settings in which the test might be useful.

Assist in the diagnosis of dengue virus infection

test algorithm

Outlines situations where tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflexes and additional checks.

For more information, seeLaboratory tests for mosquito-borne diseases.

clinical information

It analyzes the physiology, pathophysiology and general clinical aspects, in relation to a laboratory exam.

Dengue virus (DV) is a globally distributed flavivirus with 4 distinct serotypes (DV-1, -2, -3, -4). It is mainly transmitted bytemples of the egyptiansmosquito, which is found in tropical and subtropical regions of more than 100 countries. DV represents a major global public health threat with approximately 2.5 to 3 billion people residing in DV endemic areas, among which 100 to 200 million people will become infected and approximately 30,000 patients will succumb to the disease annually.

After dengue infection, the incubation period ranges from 3 to 7 days, and although some infections remain asymptomatic, most people will develop classic dengue. Symptomatic patients become acutely febrile and present with severe musculoskeletal pain, headache, retro-orbital pain, and a transient macular rash, most commonly seen in children. A decrease in fever signals resolution of the illness in most individuals. However, children and young adults remain at increased risk of progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, particularly during repeated infection with a new DV serotype.

Detection of dengue-specific IgM and IgG antibodies remains the most widely used diagnostic method. Seroconversion occurs approximately 3-7 days after exposure and therefore tests of acute and convalescent sera may be required to make the diagnosis. As an adjunct to serologic testing, identification of early DV infection can be accomplished by detection of DV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. NS1 antigenemia is detectable within 24 hours of infection and up to 9 days after the onset of symptoms. DV NS1 antigen can be detected by ordering DNSAG/Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen, Serum.

Reference values

Describes reference ranges and additional information for interpreting test results. You can include ranges based on age and gender, where applicable. Ranges are derived from May unless otherwise noted. If an interpretive report is provided, the baseline field will indicate so.

IgG: negative

IgM: negative

Reference values ​​apply to all ages.


Provides information to aid in the interpretation of test results.

The presence of antibodies of the IgG class against dengue virus (DV) is consistent with exposure to this virus at some point in the past. Three weeks after exposure, almost all immunocompetent individuals should have developed IgG antibodies to VD.

The presence of antibodies of the IgM class against DV is consistent with an acute phase infection.

IgM antibodies become detectable 3 to 7 days after infection and may remain detectable for up to 6 months or longer after the illness resolves.

The absence of IgM class antibodies against DV is consistent with the absence of infection. However, samples collected shortly after exposure may be negative for DV IgM antibodies. If the suspicion of VD persists, a second sample collected approximately 10 to 12 days after exposure should be tested.


Discusses conditions that can cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances.

Test results should be used in conjunction with clinical assessment, including exposure history and clinical presentation.

False-positive results, particularly with the dengue virus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, may occur in persons infected with other flaviviruses, including Zika virus, West Nile virus, and St. Louis. It may be necessary to obtain a detailed exposure history and additional laboratory tests to determine the infectious virus.

Positive test results may not be valid in people who have received transfusions of blood or other blood products in the last few months.

The significance of a negative result in an immunosuppressed patient is unclear.

Support data

A total of 200 prospective serum samples subjected to Dengue Virus (DV) IgM and IgG testing by Focus Diagnostics DV IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) were also tested by InBios IgM and IgG DV assays. The results were compared and the data summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

(Video) The Truth about IgM and IgG Antibody/Serology Tests

Table 1. Comparison of InBios and Focus (Quest) DV IgM EIA diagnoses


Focus (Quest) Diagnostic DV IgM EIA










Sensitivity: 87.5% (14/16); 95% CI: 62.7%-97.7%

Specificity: 100% (184/184); 95% CI: 97.5%-100%

Agreement: 99% (198/200); 95% CI: 96.1-99.9%

Table 2. Comparison of InBios and Focus (Quest) DV IgG EIA diagnoses


Focus (Quest) Diagnostic DV IgG EIA









Sensitivity: 94.4% (34/36); 95% CI: 80.9-99.4%

Specificity: 100% (164/164); 95% CI: 97.2%-100%

Agreement: 99% (198/200); 95% CI: 96.1-99.9%

InBios DV also tested 42 serum samples positive for antibodies of the IgG class against West Nile virus (n=24), St. Louis (n=9) and California virus (LaCrosse) (n=9). IgG EIA and data are summarized below in Table 3.

Table 3. InBios DV IgG EIA cross-reactivity with antibodies against West Nile virus, St. Louis and California virus (LaCrosse)


West Nile virus IgG positive

Encephalitis virus of St. louis positive

California (LaCrosse) virus positive











Note that the InBios DV IgG EIA shows significant cross-reactivity with antibodies against West Nile virus and St. Louis.

Clinical Reference

Recommendations for further reading of a clinical nature

1. Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, et al: The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature. April 25, 2013; 496 (7446): 504-507. doi: 10.1038/naturaleza12060

2. Dengue: an infectious disease of staggering proportions. Lancet. June 22, 2013; 381 (9884): 2136.dos: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61423-3

3. Rigau-Perez JG, Clark GG, Gubler DJ, Reiter P, Sanders EJ, Vorndam AV: Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. lancet. 1998 Sep 19;352(9132):971-977

4. Tang KF, Ooi EE: Dengue diagnosis: an update. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. August 2012; 10(8):895-907. doi: 10.1586/eri.12.76

5. Guzman MG, Kouri G: Dengue diagnosis, advances and challenges. Int J Infect Dis. 2004 March;8:69-80

Special Instructions

Library of PDF files that include pertinent information and test-related forms

  • Laboratory tests for mosquito-borne diseases

Method description

Describes how the test is performed and provides specific reference to the method.

Dengue virus IgM:

In this enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples and controls are diluted in sample dilution buffer and incubated in microtiter wells coated with anti-human IgM antibodies. This incubation is followed by an incubation with recombinant dengue-derived antigen (DENRA) and normal cell antigen separately. After incubation and washing, the wells are treated with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled DEN-specific monoclonal antibody. After a second incubation and washing step, the wells are incubated with tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate. The acid stop is added and the absorbance is read at 450 nm. The ratio of DENRA absorbances and control antigen wells determines whether the result is positive or negative. (Insert Handout: InBiOS DENV Detect IgM CAPTURE ELISA. InBios International, Inc; Review 01/10/2019)

Dengue virus IgG:

In this ELISA assay, controls and diluted samples are incubated in microtiter wells coated with monoclonal antibody linked to DENRA. After incubation and washing, the wells are treated with HRP-labelled IgG antibodies. After a second incubation and wash, the wells are incubated with TMB substrate. The acid stop is added and the absorbance is measured at 450 nm. The relationship between the absorbances of DENRA and the control wells determines whether a result is positive or negative. (Insert Insert: InBiOS DENV Detect IgG ELISA. InBios International, Inc; Revision 5/1/2018)

PDF report

Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other valuable information


Completed day(s)

Describe the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day the sample must be in the testing lab to begin the testing process and includes sample preparation and processing time prior to testing. Some tests are listed as running continuously, which means the tests are run multiple times throughout the day.


report available

The time span (from receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results becoming available), taking into account standard preparation days and weekends. The first day is the time it usually takes for a result to be available. The last day is how long it might take, taking into account the necessary repeat testing.

(Video) Dengue - Serological investigation - NS 1 Antigen and IgM / IgG Test for Dengue

Same day/1 to 7 days

Sample retention time

Describes the length of time after testing that a sample is held in the laboratory before being discarded.

14 dias

Location of the Execution Laboratory

Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


To evaluate

Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your US or international regional manager for information on setting up a fee schedule or for more information on resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can login totest pricesfor detailed fee information.
  • Customers without access to trial pricing can contactCustomer service24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Potential customers should contact their Regional Manager. contact for assistanceCustomer service.

test rating

Provides medical device classification information for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests can be classified as approved or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used according to the manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval and are then labeled as an analyte specific reagent (ASR) products. 🇧🇷

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by the Mayo Clinic consistent with CLIA requirements. This test is not licensed or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

Provides guidance for determining the appropriate information about current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for each piece of evidence or profile. The CPT codes listed reflect the interpretation of the Mayo Clinic Laboratories CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine the correct CPT codes to be used for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the executing laboratory.



LOINC® information

Provides guidance for determining the logical observation identifier (LOINC) name and code values ​​for the order and result codes for this test. LOINC values ​​are provided by the executing lab.

test id Test order name LOINC value of the order
DENGM Dengue Virus Ab, IgG and IgM, S 87546-8
result identification Test result name LOINC value of the result

Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the executing laboratory. These values ​​do not apply to results converted to other units of measure.

DENG Dengue virus Ab, IgG, S 29661-6
DENM Dengue virus Ab, IgM, S 29663-2
ADNBI Dengue AB Interpretation 69048-7

Test setup resources

configuration files

Test configuration information contains test file definition details to support the interconnection of orders and results between Mayo Clinic laboratories and your laboratory's information system.

standing out|pdf

sample reports

Normal and abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

normal reports|abnormal reports

Examples of SIM reports

Reports on the International System (SI) of units are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for use by international accounts and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been set up to receive them.

SIM normal reports|Abnormal SI Reports

(Video) Laboratory Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection| NS-1 Protein| Anti-Denv IgM & IgG| English Version


How do you read dengue test results? ›

Interpretation of results

A positive NS1 test result confirms dengue virus infection without providing serotype information. A negative NS1 test result does not rule out infection. People with negative NS1 results should be tested for the presence of dengue IgM antibodies to determine possible recent dengue exposure.

What is dengue IgG and IgM positive? ›

Positive IgM and IgG tests for dengue antibodies detected in an initial blood sample mean that it is likely that the person became infected with dengue virus within recent weeks. IgM antibody tests can be positive if a person has been infected with a similar virus, such as chikungunya (called cross-reaction).

What is dengue normal range? ›

2.85 IV or greater: Positive - IgG antibody to dengue fever virus detected, which may indicate a current or past infection. 1.64 IV or less: Negative - No significant level of detectable dengue fever virus IgM antibody. 1.65-2.84 IV: Equivocal - Questionable presence of antibodies.

What if only dengue IgG is positive? ›

What does dengue IgG positive mean? Dengue IgG positive means IgG antibodies to Dengue fever virus are detected in your blood sample. This may indicate a past infection or a current one. You will need to take another test to confirm.

What is the meaning of IgG positive and IgM negative? ›

The positive IgM plus negative IgG (IgM+ plus IgG-) results showed that 38% of those patients had a recent primary dengue infection, while the positive IgG plus either positive or negative IgM (IgG+ plus IgM+/-) results indicated that 62% had dengue for at least a second time (recent secondary infections).

How do you know if dengue test is positive or negative? ›

Interpretation of results

Positive IgM: Patients with a positive IgM test result are classified as presumptive, recent dengue virus infections. Negative IgM: Patients with negative IgM results before day 8 of illness and absent or negative NAAT or NS1 results are considered unconfirmed cases.

What is the danger stage of dengue? ›

The critical phase of dengue begins at defervescence and typically lasts 24–48 hours. Most patients clinically improve during this phase, but those with substantial plasma leakage can, within a few hours, develop severe dengue as a result of a marked increase in vascular permeability.

What is Stage 3 dengue? ›

The critical phase (also called the hemorrhagic phase): Usually on the 3rd-7th day of the disease. Manifestations of fever may decrease or remain feverish, signs of bleeding from mild to severe, there are various bleeding manifestations (due to thrombocytopenia in the blood), a stage where many complications occur.

What is a positive dengue test? ›

A positive result means you probably have been infected with the dengue virus. A negative result can mean you aren't infected or you were tested too soon for the virus to show up in testing.

How long does dengue IgG stay positive? ›

It can be detected 3–5 days after the onset of the disease, persisting for 2–3 months [1]. It is believed that DENV IgG antibody usually appears 8–10 days after primary infection [1] and therefore can be used as long-term detection marker [12].

What is the difference between dengue IgG and IgM? ›

The IgM become detectable on Day 3 to 5 of illness in case of primary dengue infection and persist for 2 to 3 months, whereas IgG appear by the fourteenth day and persist for life. Secondary infection shows that IgG rises within 1 to 2 days after onset of symptoms, simultaneously with IgM antibodies.

Does IgG indicate past infection? ›

Both SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies may be detected around the same time after infection. However, while IgM is most useful for determining recent infection, it usually becomes undetectable weeks to months following infection; in contrast, IgG is usually detectable for longer periods.

What if dengue IgM is negative? ›

Negative tests for IgM and/or IgG antibodies may mean that the individual tested does not have a dengue infection and symptoms are due to another cause, or that the level of antibody may be too low to measure.

What happens if IgM is high? ›

Patients with Hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome are susceptible to recurrent and severe infections and in some types of HIGM syndrome opportunistic infections and an increased risk of cancer as well.

What does it mean if you have IgM and IgG antibodies? ›

-If the tests show you have both IgM and IgG, it suggests you are in the early recovery phase. -If the test shows IgG alone, it suggests you have had the infection and are at least 14 days from the beginning of the infection and are unlikely to be infectious.

When IgG test is positive? ›

If detected, this likely indicates that a person was previously infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. An IgG antibody is a protein that the body produces in the latter stages of infection and may remain for some time after a person has recovered.

What level of IgG is positive? ›

Strong positive (≥200 IU/mL): IgG antibody values at and greater than 200 IU/mL confirm the presence of high levels of circulating IgG antibodies binding to the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Corresponding serum AU/mL values are ≥40 and serum measured titers range from 960 to above 2880.

What is recovery phase in dengue? ›

Recovery depends on the severity of the illness and any treatments prescribed in the febrile and critical phases. Onset of the recovery phase can be identified by the following: Patient improvement. Gradual reabsorption of extravasated fluid (such as from plasma leakage) over 48–72 hours.

WHO dengue with warning signs? ›

Warning Signs*
  • Abdominal pain or tenderness.
  • Persistent vomiting.
  • Clinical fluid accumulation.
  • Mucosal bleed.
  • Lethargy or restlessness.
  • Liver enlargement > 2 cm.
  • Laboratory finding of increasing HCT concurrent with rapid decrease in platelet count.

How recover from dengue fast? ›

4 Things to do to recover from dengue fever fast
  1. Maintain adequate hydration. Drink plenty of fluids (water, isotonic drinks, fruit juices and soup) to maintain hydration. ...
  2. Keep symptoms under control. Fever and joint pains can be relieved by taking paracetamol. ...
  3. Avoid bleeding. ...
  4. Foods to eat and avoid.

Can dengue be cured in 3 days? ›

Most cases of dengue fever go away within a week or two and won't cause any lasting problems. If someone has severe symptoms of the disease, or if symptoms get worse in the first day or two after the fever goes away, get medical care right away. This could be an indication of DHF, which is a medical emergency.

What happens on 7th day of dengue? ›

Dengue fever on the 7th day still needs vigilance

Specifically: Fever phase: This is the incubation period, the patient may have a high fever of 39-40 degrees Celsius, continuous fever, difficult to lower. Besides, the patient may have headache, eye socket pain, rash, vomiting, joint pain.

Does dengue lead to death? ›

Severe dengue fever can cause internal bleeding and organ damage. Blood pressure can drop to dangerous levels, causing shock. In some cases, severe dengue fever can lead to death.

Which day platelets decrease in dengue? ›

When do platelets decrease in dengue fever? Platelet counts usually drop significantly by day 4 of illness. In adults without dengue shock, platelet counts drop slightly to moderate from day 3 to day 7 of illness and return to normal by day 8 or 9.

What is Type 4 dengue? ›

Dengue Fever

The dengue virus complex consists of four antigenically related but distinct flaviviruses termed dengue virus serotypes 1 through 4 (DEN1 to DEN4). 4. Dengue viruses are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitos in epidemic and endemic outbreaks and cause acute infections.

Can you survive 2nd dengue? ›

Basically the virus causing dengue fever comes in four strains, and immunity to one seems to make infection by a second strain more dangerous. Death happens if this second time dengue two virus has infected the patient.

When will dengue test be positive? ›

Before day 5 of illness, during the febrile period, dengue infections may be diagnosed by virus isolation in cell culture, by detection of viral RNA by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), or by detection of viral antigens by ELISA or rapid tests.

What comes first IgG or IgM? ›

Seroconversion for IgG (mean 10 days) occurred simultaneously, or 1 day earlier, than that for IgM and IgA (mean 11 days for both). IgG could be detected as early as 4 days after the onset of illness. The earliest time at which these three antibodies reached peak levels was similar (mean 15 days).

What is a high IgG number? ›

High IgG (>16g/L)

Elevated IgG levels can be seen in chronic active infection or inflammation, or in association with plasma cell disorders.

Is IgG serious? ›

An IgG deficiency is a health problem in which your body doesn't make enough Immunoglobulin G (IgG). People with IgG deficiency are more likely to get infections. When your body feels it is under attack, it makes special proteins called immunoglobulins or antibodies. These antibodies are made by the plasma cells.

What is good platelet count in dengue? ›

High-risk patients having platelet count < 20,000/cumm and risk of bleeding require urgent platelet transfusion. Patients with platelet count 21-40,000/cumm are in moderate risk and require platelet transfusion only if they have any haemorrhagic manifestations and other superadded conditions.

What is the normal range of dengue NS1 antigen? ›

An NS1 Ag level varies from 0.5-2 μg/ml in acute-phase serum samples, to less than 0.04 μg/ml in convalescent phase serum [11].

What is the meaning of dengue score? ›

The Dengue Score is a model for predicting pleural effusion and/or ascites and uses the hematocrit (Hct), albumin concentration, platelet count and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ratio as independent variables.

What is T1 and T2 in dengue rapid test? ›

The T1 band is pre-coated with the antibody for the detection of IgG anti-dengue virus, T2 band is coated with antibody for the detection of IgM anti-dengue virus, and the C band is pre-coated with goat anti rabbit IgG.

Is coconut water increase platelets? ›

Coagulation profile revealed significant increase in platelets and fibrinogen level with decrease in bleeding time and increase in clotting time by coconut water.

What are the 3 stages of dengue fever? ›

Dengue begins abruptly after a typical incubation period of 5–7 days, and the course follows 3 phases: febrile, critical, and convalescent.

Which tablets increase platelets? ›

NPLATE® (romiplostim) 101

Once-weekly Nplate ® is a platelet booster that works with your body to create more platelets. Nplate ® is used after steroids and does not work by suppressing the immune system. Instead, it increases the activity of the cells that naturally produce platelets.

How many cells are normal in dengue? ›

Peripheral blood parameters change during the course of the illness. Dengue fever is characterized by leucopenia (White Blood Cells (WBC) < 5000 cells/mm3), thrombocytopenia (< 150,000 cells/mm3), rising haematocrit (5–10%) and there should be no evidence of plasma leakage [10].

What are the 4 types of dengue fever? ›

Dengue is caused by a virus of the Flaviviridae family and there are four distinct, but closely related, serotypes of the virus that cause dengue (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4). Recovery from infection is believed to provide lifelong immunity against that serotype.

Who is at risk for dengue? ›

Risk factors for severe disease include being a neonate or young child, female sex, high body mass index, viral load, genetic polymorphisms and previous infection with DENV-1 if the patient contracts DENV-2 or DENV-3. Diabetes and asthma are risk factors for fatal disease.

What is Type 2 dengue? ›

Native Dengue Virus Type 2 is a preparation of viral particles concentrated from tissue culture supernatant. Dengue Virus Type 2 is one of four antigenically distinct yet closely related viral serotypes belonging to the family Flaviviridae known to cause Dengue fever in humans.


1. Immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) interpretation of serological tests
(Neuro-Ophthalmology with Dr. Andrew G. Lee)
2. Dengue Fever,NS1, Dr.Sanjay Kumar, PhD
(Dr.Sanjay Kumar)
3. COVID-19 and Antibody tests explained: IgM and IgG antibodies to Coronavirus
(Beckman Coulter Dx)
4. Dengue NS1 Antigen Test | Dengue IgM IgG Antibody Test | Dengue Report कैसे समझें?
(Medical Lab Technologist Dinesh)
5. Dengue IgM & IgG detection and interpretation
(MR learning circle)
6. IgM and IgG antibodies represent different stages of an immune response against COVID-19
(Beckman Coulter Dx)


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